APA Citation & Style Guide

In-text Citations

Any time you paraphrase or quote from a source you must give an in-text citation. Every in-text citation points a reader to complete details of each source used in the References page (at the end of your paper). In-text citations in APA style require author and year; direct quotations also require page number (if known).

In-text Citation When Paraphrasing

According to one researcher, students learn best when they are actively engaged (Smith, 2013). 

In her research, Smith (2013) found that students learn best when they are actively engaged. 

In-text Citation When Quoting

Smith (2011) concluded that "the evidence shows that community college students learn best when they are actively participating in a lecture" (p. 49).

One scholar concluded that "students learn best when they are actively participating" (Smith, 2011, p. 49).

In-text Citation of Source With No Author

If a source does not have an author the in-text citation should use the first few words of the title of the source in quotation marks and the year: Scientists in Oceanside discovered that blue whales prefer cold water ("New Ocean Discoveries," 2014).

First and Subsequent In-text Citations

Certain rules apply for in-text citations for works by three or more authors. See chart below

APA Basic Citation Styles


For additional help with in-text citations please Ask Us or stop by the the Research Help desk to meet with a librarian.