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Latinx Chicanx Heritage Month

National Hispanic Heritage MonthAlso known as the National Hispanic Heritage Month, Latinx Chicanx Heritage Month (September 15–October 15) honors the achievements of Hispanics. The terms Latinx and Chicanx have been adopted to be gender inclusive. The celebration was first authorized in 1968, when the U.S. Congress adopted a resolution asking the president of the United States annually to issue a proclamation designating a week in September including September 15 and 16 as “National Hispanic Heritage Week.” In 1988 Congress expanded the celebration to a 31-day period beginning September 15. The resolution calls “on the people of the United States, especially the educational community, to observe National Hispanic Heritage Month with appropriate ceremonies and activities.” Hispanic Heritage Month coincides with the celebrations of Independence Day in many Latin American countries—including Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (September 15), Mexico (September 16), and Chile (September 18)—as well as with (originally October 12 in the United States but now commemorated there on the second Monday in October).  Read more

Famous People in Latinx and Chicanx History

Sonia Sotomayor

Sonia Sotomayor

Sonia Sotomayor (born 1954) is the first American of Hispanic descent to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court. With her swearing-in ceremony on August 9, 2009, Sotomayor became the highest ranking person of Puerto Rican heritage in the United States government. Full Bio

Dolores Huerta

Dolores Huerta

Cofounder and first vice president of the United Farm Workers, Dolores Huerta (sometimes referred to as Dolores "Huelga, " Spanish for "strike") is the most prominent Chicana labor leader in the United States. Full Bio

 

Rodolfo

Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales

Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales was an activist and spokesperson for the Chicano movement in the United States. Because of its social impact, his only published work, the epic poem I Am Joaquín/Yo Soy Joaquín (1967), is often considered more of a social commentary than a literary work of art. Full Bio

César Chávez

César Chávez

César Chávez was a grass-roots labor organizer who rose from the ranks of California migrant workers to form and lead the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA), it was the first effective agricultural union in the United States.  Full Bio

Gloria Evangelina Anzaldua

Gloria Evangelina Anzaldua

Gloria Anzaldua's strength as a Chicana lesbian writer and activist has long been based on a certain defiance of what is expected of her, a rejection of what popularly constitutes political correctness, and a steadfast refusal to accept any of the labels applied to her.  Full Bio

Frida Kahlo

Frida Kahlo

Frida Kahlo was a painter whose work fascinated prominent and diverse artists around the world. The wife of world-renowned Mexican muralist Diego Rivera, Kahlo forged a place in the art world that was completely her own.  Full Bio

Lin Manuel Miranda

Lin Manuel Miranda

Lin-Manuel Miranda is an American playwright, actor, composer, and performer. He became best known, as the creator of the critically acclaimed and popular musical Hamilton, for which he has received various awards, including two Tony Awards and a Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Full Bio

Latinx and Chicanx History Books @ MiraCosta Library

Latinx and Chicanx History Films @ MiraCosta Library

Dolores

Dolores

Dolores Huerta is among the most important, yet least known, activists in American history. An equal partner in co-founding the first farm workers unions with Cesar Chavez, her enormous contributions have gone largely unrecognized. Dolores tirelessly led the fight for racial and labor justice alongside Chavez, becoming one of the most defiant feminists of the twentieth century--and she continues the fight to this day, at 87.

Stolen Education

Stolen Education

Stolen Education documents the untold story of Mexican-American school children who challenged discrimination in Texas schools in the 1950's and changed the face of education in the Southwest.The film portrays the courage of these young people, testifying in an era when fear and intimidation were used to maintain racial hierarchy and control. The students won the case, but for almost sixty years the case was never spoken about in the farming community where they lived despite its significance.

Los Punks: We Are All We Have

Los Punks: We Are All We Have

From the producers of Dogtown and Z-Boys and Bones Brigade: An Autobiography comes a look at an expressive, explosive world that is known about but almost never entered by outsiders. The film, directed by renowned photographer Angela Boatwright, explores the young, mostly Hispanic, Punk scene in L.A. and finds an undeniably gritty, yet creative environment.

Abrazos

Abrazos

Even though they are entitled to the same rights and freedoms as all Americans, many of these children are growing up with the constant fear of separation from their parents. In addition, never having met their grandparents or other family members, they don't have a clear sense of who they are and their heritage. All of these things negatively impact their welfare and that of society.

The New Latinos

The New Latinos

Highlights the swelling immigration from Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Dominican Republic that stretches from the post-World War II years into the early 1960s as the new arrivals seek economic opportunities.

Precious Knowledge

Precious Knowledge

Precious Knowledge reports from the frontlines of one of the most contentious battles in public education in recent memory, the fight over Mexican American studies programs in Arizona public schools. The film interweaves the stories of several students enrolled in the Mexican American Studies Program at Tucson High School with interviews with teachers, parents, school officials, and the lawmakers who wish to outlaw the classes.

Being ñ

Being ñ

Being ñ explores the distinct, shared experience of 16 million people living in the U.S. today called Enyes (n)s. Enyes (n)s are first generation American-born Latinos with at least one parent from a Spanish -speaking country. A central theme of many Enyes' experience growing up in the U.S. is not feeling fully connected with either the mainstream American culture or with the culture of their parent's country of origin.

Voces Americanas: Latino Literature in the United States

Barbacoa para Cumpleaños, by Carmen Lomas Garza, 1993.

For more than three decades, a literary renaissance has been going on in the United States. Through poetry, prose and drama, Latino authors illuminated the American experience for Spanish-speaking peoples whose ancestry goes back to Latin American lands. Voces Americanas: Latino Literature in the United States introduces this vibrant literature and many facets of Latino culture.

Bilingualism & Spanglish in the U.S.

Bilingualism & Spanglish Exhibit

The Spanish and Portuguese department, its student association (SELACH), and MA Spanish students from San Diego State, University present an exploration of bilingualism and Spanglish in the United States. The exhibit includes information on the role that Spanglish plays in today’s society, its influence in forming Hispanics/Latinos’ sense of identity, and attitudes towards bilingual behavior such as code-switching. It also provides current demographic information of Spanish in the US, myths and fears about bilingualism. This exhibit is located on the 2nd floor of the Oceanside Campus Library and will run until the end of October.

Pictured: Claudia Woodard, Spanish Lecturer at Mira Costa College & San Diego State University with Dr. Alfredo Urzua, Associate Professor, Department of Spanish & Portuguese at San Diego State University.

 

Spanish in the U.S.

A report published by the Instituto Cervantes indicates that there are an estimated 52.6 million people in the U.S. who can speak Spanish, which is second only to Mexico’s 121 million.
NY Post

Latinos are the fastest-growing ethnic group in the country, accounting for 53% of U.S. population growth.
Statista

 

What is Spanglish?

The words 'English' and 'Spanish' coming out of the same mouth.

The term Spanglish causes many debates and controversies. It is often used to describe a variety of Spanish spoken in the United States. Many consider it a derogatory term, while others believe it reflects, for better or worse, the experience of many Hispanics/Latinos in the US. It is certainly a mixing of Spanish and English, which has been referred to as ‘a hybrid’, ‘mestizaje’, and ‘fusion’.

What is known as Spanglish is characterized, mainly, by code-switching and lexical borrowings or adaptations. The term Spanglish can also be found in discussions of identity in rela-tion to Spanish-speakers in the US.

Spanglish is NOT a random mixing of Spanish and English. It is also not ‘mock Spanish’ or invented Spanish, nor bad or poor translations which, unfortunately, are often found in public places.

What is Code-switching?

Code-switching occurs when bilinguals substitute a word or phrase in one of their languages with a phrase or word from the other language.
-Heredia, Brown, & Jeffrey (2005). Routledge Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Routledge.

Code-switching is very common among Spanish-English bilinguals in the US. Unfortunately, many people think that code-switching reflects a lack of competence in the languages used. However, many linguistic studies have revealed that, in order to code-switch competently and fluently, it is necessary to have high levels of proficiency in both languages!