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APA Citation

Information on this page reflects the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the APA published October 2019.

American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is used to avoid plagiarism and give credit to others for their work. APA requires:

  • In-Text Citations for each source when paraphrasing and quoting
  • References page with full citation details for each source used

APA Citation Examples

Articles

Article (General Format)
Author Last Name, First Name. (Publication Date). Article title. Title of Publication, volume number(issue number), pages. DOI URL
In-text: (Author, YYYY)

Journal Article on Website or Database (DOI)
Hayakawa, M. (2013). Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before an earthquake. Animals, 3(1), 19-32. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani3010019
In-text: (Hayakawa, 2013)

Journal Article on Website or Database (No DOI)
Madley, S. & Jilek, L. (2012). Attachment style and dissolution of romantic relationships: Breaking up is hard to do, or is it? Individual Differences Research, 10(4), 202-210.
In-text: (Madley & Jilek, 2012)

Newspaper Article on Website or Database
Baig, E. C. (2012, January 20). Apple looks to transform e-textbooks. USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com
In-text: (Baig, 2012)

Books

Book (General Format)
Author Last Name, First Name. (Publication Date). Title. Publisher.
In-text: (Author, Year)

Book in Print
Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. Pantheon Books.
In-text: (Said, 1978)

eBook in a Database
Marshall, C. W., & Kovacs, G. (2011). Classics and comics. Oxford University Press.
In-text: (Marshall & Kovacs, 2011)

Chapter in a Book in Print
Pellerin, R. M., & Sanders, J. (2016). Disability and inequality. In J. Ballantine (Ed.), Our social world, (5th ed., pp. 359-360). Sage.
In-text: (Pellerin & Sanders, 2016)

Chapter in a Book in Database
Hanson, M. (2000). Deep ecology. In L. Code (Ed.), Encyclopedia of feminist theories. Routledge.
In-text: (Hanson, 2000)

Databases

Academic Search Ultimate
Madley, S. & Jilek, L. (2012). Attachment style and dissolution of romantic relationships: Breaking up is hard to do, or is it? Individual Differences Research, 10(4), 202-210.
In-text: (Madley & Jilek, 2012)

ArtSTOR
Gurney, J. (Photographer). (1871). Portrait (front) of Bird Chief in native dress with ornaments [Photograph]. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland.
In-text: (Gurney, 1871)

Britannica: Academic
Black death. (2020). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
In-text: ("Black Death", 2020)

CQ Researcher
Glazer, S. (2006, April 14). Future of feminism. CQ Researcher, 16, 313-336.
In-text: (Glazer, 2006)

eBook Collection
Hanson, M. (2000). Deep ecology. In L. Code (Ed.), Encyclopedia of feminist theories. Routledge.
In-text: (Hanson, 2000)

Films on Demand
Films Media Group. (2012). Lifelong physical activity [Video file].
In-text: (Films Media Group, 2012)

Gale eBooks
Smith, B. L., & Levitt, H. M. (2008). Transgender. In W. A. Darity, Jr. (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social sciences (2nd ed., Vol. 8, pp. 431-432). MacMillan Reference USA.
In-text: (Smith & Levitt, 2008)

JSTOR
Fonjong, L. (2001). Fostering women’s participation in development through non-governmental efforts in Cameroon. The Geographical Journal, 167(3), 223-234. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4959.00020
In-text: (Fonjong, 2001)

Opposing Viewpoints
Maich, S. (2010). The fight against AIDS could be won with more government money. In N. Harris (Ed.), AIDS in Developing Countries. Greenhaven Press.
In-text: (Maich, 2010)

PsychArticles
Walsh, R. (2001). Positive psychology: East and West. American Psychologist, 61(1), 83-84. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.1.83
In-text: (Walsh, 2001)

Websites

Website (General Format)
Author (Person or Company). (Date-if available). Name of page. Name of site. URL
In-text: (Author, Date)

Page on a Website
Supreme Court of the United States. (n.d.). Justices. https://www.supremecourt.gov/about/justices.aspx
In-text: (Supreme Court, n.d.)

Article on a Website
Rosa-Aquino, P. (2020, August 17). Hubble just captured a lunar eclipse for the first time ever. Popular Science. https://www.popsci.com/story/space/hubble-blood-moon-lunar-eclipse/
In-text: (Rosa-Aquino, 2020)

Entire Website
Do not create references or in-text citations for whole websites.

YouTube
Lustig, R. H. (2009, July 30). Sugar: The bitter truth [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBnniua6-oM
In-text: (Lustig, 2009)