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APA Citation

American Psychological Association (APA) style, most commonly used in the social sciences, is a specific formatting style that students and scholars use to write papers and cite sources.

The References list is the final page of a research paper and is comprised of citations for all sources used. It provides the complete details for each source that was cited briefly in-text and should be alphabetized and double-spaced. If the full citation for a source is longer than one line then every line after the first should have a half-inch hanging indent.

Any time you paraphrase or quote from a source you must give an in-text citation. Every in-text citation points a reader to complete details of each source used in the References page (at the end of your paper). In-text citations in APA style require you to give author and year of publication.

Formatting a paper correctly in APA, including margins, page numbers, running head, etc is explained in detail at Purdue University's Online Writing Lab.

APA Citation Examples

Articles

Article (General Format)
Author Last Name, First Name. (Publication Date). Article title. Title of Publication, volume number(issue number), pages. Retrieved from http://www.homepage.com/full/url/
In-text: (Author, YYYY)

Journal Article on Website or Database (DOI)
Hayakawa, M. (2013). Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before an earthquake. Animals, 3(1), 19-32. doi:10.3390/ani3010019
In-text: (Hayakawa, 2013)

Journal Article on Website or Database (No DOI)
Madley, S. & Jilek, L. (2012). Attachment style and dissolution of romantic relationships: Breaking up is hard to do, or is it? Individual Differences Research, 10(4), 202-210. Retrieved from http://www.idr-journal.com/
In-text: (Madley & Jilek, 2012)

Newspaper Article on Website or Database
Baig, E. C. (2012, January 20). Apple looks to transform e-textbooks. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com
In-text: (Wheeler and Hunt)

Books

Book (General Format)
Author Last Name, First Name. (Publication Date). Title. City, State: Publisher.
In-text: (Author, Year)

Book in Print
Said, Edward. (1978). Orientalism. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.
In-text: (Said, 1978)

eBook in a Database
Marshall, C. W., & Kovacs, G. (2011). Classics and comics. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com
In-text: (Marshall & Kovacs, 2011)

Chapter in a Book in Print
Pellerin, R. M., & Sanders, J. (2016). Disability and inequality. In J. Ballantine (Ed.), Our social world, (5th ed., pp. 359-360). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
In-text: (Pellerin & Sanders, 2016)

Chapter in a Book in Database
Hanson, M. (2000). Deep ecology. In L. Code (Ed.), Encyclopedia of feminist theories. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com
In-text: (Hanson, 2000)

Databases

Academic Search Ultimate
Madley, S. & Jilek, L. (2012). Attachment style and dissolution of romantic relationships: Breaking up is hard to do, or is it? Individual Differences Research, 10(4), 202-210. Retrieved from http://www.idr-journal.com/
In-text: (Madley & Jilek, 2012)

ArtSTOR
Gurney, J. (Photographer). (1871). Portrait (front) of Bird Chief in native dress with ornaments [Photograph]. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland. Retrieved from http://library.artstor.org
In-text: (Gurney)

Britannica Online
Black death. (2010). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.eb.com
In-text: ("Black death", 2010)

CQ Researcher
Glazer, S. (2006, April 14). Future of feminism. CQ Researcher, 16, 313-336. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006041400
In-text: (Glazer, 2006)

eBook Collection
Hanson, M. (2000). Deep ecology. In L. Code (Ed.), Encyclopedia of feminist theories. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com
In-text: (Hanson, 2000)

Films on Demand
Films Media Group. (2012). Lifelong physical activity [Video file]. Retrieved from http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=14798&xtid=48966
In-text: (Films Media Group, 2012)

Gale Virtual Reference Library
Harrison, J. (2003). American Ballet Theatre. In S. I. Kutler (Ed.), Dictionary of American history (Vol. 1, 3rd ed.). Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/
In-text: (Harrison, 2003)

JSTOR
Fonjong, L. (2001). Fostering women’s participation in development through non-governmental efforts in Cameroon. The Geographical Journal, 167(3), 223-234. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0016-7398
In-text: (Fonjong, 2001)

Opposing Viewpoints
Maich, S. (2010). The fight against AIDS could be won with more government money. In N. Harris (Ed.), AIDS in Developing Countries. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press. Retrieved from http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic
In-text: (Maich, 2010)

PsychArticles
Walsh, R. (2001). Positive psychology: East and West. American Psychologist, 61(1), 83-84. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.1.83
In-text: (Walsh, 2001)

Websites

Website (General Format)
Name of website. (Date-if available). Title of individual article. Retrieved from URL
In-text: (Name of website, Date)

Article on a Website
Wetlands Restoration Project. (2003). Atlantic Global Marsh thrives under new protection. Retrieved from http://www.wetlands.org/atlantic_global_marsh.html
In-text: ("Wetlands Restoration Project", 2003)

Entire Website
Supreme Court of the United States. https://www.supremecourt.gov/
In-text; ("Supreme Court")

YouTube
Lustig, R. H. (2009, July 30). Sugar: The bitter truth [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBnniua6-oM
In-text: (Lustig, 2009)