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Info 6: Citing Sources


There are two steps to citing your sources:

Step 1: Citing your sources within your paper: Giving credit within a research paper through footnotes or parenthetical citations (also commonly called in-text citations).

Step 2: Preparing a list of sources you consulted: Giving credit at the end of a research paper in the bibliography, also called Works Cited or References list.

The MLA Two-Step


No Author? No Page #? Paraphrasing? MLA

There are always exceptions.

No author?

First few words of the title:

Scientists in Oceanside discovered that blue whales prefer cold water ("New Ocean Discoveries" 39).

No page #?

Author's last name:

Blue whales also exhibit sonar capabilities like dolphins and use echolocation to find food (Gonzalez).

The Process

The APA Tango


No Author? No Page #? Paraphrasing? APA

There are always exceptions:

No Author?  No Page #? Direct Quote.

Scientists in Oceanside discovered that "blue whales prefer cold water" and migrate according to the cold water jet stream ("New Ocean Discoveries," 2009).


According to one researcher, students learn best when they are actively engaged (Gonzalez, 2012).

[page number for a paraphrase is optional]

APA Practice

What info goes into the parenthetical or in-text citation?

Jeremy Wang noted in his findings that community college students "are more successful when they take a research class at the beginning of their college career"   ( _________ ).

APA Practice
2010, p.38 since the author's name is already mentioned in the sentence: 27 votes (14.75%)
Wang, 2010, p.38: 146 votes (79.78%)
p. 38: 5 votes (2.73%)
Nothing needed.: 5 votes (2.73%)
Total Votes: 183